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Topics and admission test sample Biology + Chemistry

The admission examination in framework of the admission procedure to MDSP Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology takes place in the form of tests in  biology and chemistry.

Sample questions from biology and chemistry (admission examination)


Topical headings of questions, recommended literature


  • Origin of life, evolution, Darwinism
  • Living systems. Biological disciplines and terminology.
  • Viruses, viral infections and diseases
  • Cell organelles (nucleus, ER, GA, lysosomes, peroxisomes, chloroplast, mitochondria)
  • Cell membrane and transport across membrane, osmosis, pumps
  • Chemical elements and biopolymers
  • Prokaryotic cell - Eubacteria, Archea and bacterial infections
  • Eukaryotic cell - animal and plant cell
  • Cellular metabolism - cellular respiration, photosynthesis
  • Cytoskeleton and type of movement
  • Cell cycle - phases and regulation, cell death
  • Mitosis - phases
  • Meiosis - crossing over, oogenesis and spermatogenesis, gametes, fertilization
Molecular genetics
  • Nucleic acids and proteins
  • Replication, transcription, translation and genetic code
  • Genome, gene, mutations
  • Chromosome, karyotype and chromosomal abnormalities
  • Basic molecular genetic methods (e.g. PCR, gel electrophoresis)
  • Genotype, phenotype, alleles, qualitative and quantitative trait
  • Basic genetics crosses from monohybridism and dihybridism (P, F1, F2, B1 generations)
  • Mendel laws and Mendelian inheritance
  • Gene linkage and Morgan laws
  • Gene interactions, sex-linked (sex influenced and sex controlled) traits
  • Non-Mendelian inheritance
  • Population genetics, HW equilibrium
  • Quantitative genetic
Human biology
  • Anatomy and physiology of the animal body, tissues and organ systems
  • Skeleton and muscles
  • Components and function of blood, heart and circulatory system
  • Immunity, lymphatic system and antibodies
  • Respiration and respiratory system
  • Digestive system and basic nutrients, vitamins, their sources and importance
  • Excretion, urinary system, production and composition of urin
  • Taxonomy of animals
  • Protozoans (Protozoa)
  • Invertebrates - classification, reproduction, ontogenesis and body structure
  • Helmints and arthropods - life cycle and associated diseases
  • Chordaates - classification, reproduction, ontogenesis and body structure
  • Medically important fungi
  • Organisms and environment, communities, ecosystems.
  • Ecological niche, biotope.
  • Abiotic and biotic components of the environment.
  • Food ecology.
  • Populations and relationships between them.
  • Biogeography, biodiversity.
Nature protection
Recommended literature for exam preparation:
  • Jelínek J., Zicháček V.: Biology for grammar schools. Publishing House Olomouc, 2007.
  • Rosypal S. et al.: New review of biology. Scientia, Prague, 2003.
  • Kočárek: Genetics, Scientia, Prague, 2004 General characteristics of living systems


Chemical nomenclature
  • Nomenclature of binary compounds, nomenclature of oxygenic acids and their salts, nomenclature of hydroxides, nomenclature of coordination compounds.
  • Nomenclature of hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alkynes, alicyclic hydrocarbons, arenes.
  • Nomenclature of derivatives of hydrocarbons: halide derivatives, nitro derivatives, sulfonic acids, amines and diamines, alcohols and phenols, ethers, carbonyl derivatives, monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, aromatic acids, halo carboxylic acids, oxo acids, hydroxy acids, amino acids, salts of organic acids, esters, chlorides of organic acids, anhydrides of organic acids, amides of organic acids, het.Erocyclic compounds, polymerized plastics, carbohydrates, lipids nomenclature of hydrocarbon residues; nomenclature of characteristic functional groups.
Fundamentals of inorganic chemistry
  • Composition and structure of atoms, development of views on the structure of the atom; fundamentals of quantum theory; quantum numbers, atomic orbitals, periodic table of elements, nuclides and isotopes. Chemical bonding. Covalent bonding, ionic bonding, coordination bonding
  • Chemical agency. Basic concepts and stoichiometry of the chemical process, writing chemical equations, chemical equilibrium, solutions; mechanism of protolytic reactions, ionic product of water, pH and hydrolysis of salts, oxidation-reduction reactions, mechanism of exclusion reactions, solubility product, chemical combining, double substitution, substitution, transmutation.
  • Periodic system of elements - basic general properties of elements, chemical properties of elements and their compounds. Hydrogen, noble gases, halogens, chalcogens, group V.A elements, group IV.A elements, boron and aluminium, group II.A elements (magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium), group I.A elements (sodium, potassium), transition elements (chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, zinc, cadmium, mercury).
Fundamentals of organic chemistry
  • Chemical properties and basic chemical reactions of organic compounds. Carbon binding properties of organic compounds, structure and isomerism of organic compounds, homolytic reactions, heterolytic reactions, addition reactions, substitution reactions.
  • Hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alkynes, arenes). Derivatives of hydrocarbons (halide derivatives, nitro derivatives). Sulphonic acids, amines, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones, organic acids, substituted organic acids. Heterocyclic compounds with five and six cycles and their important derivatives.
  • Basic types of plastics formed by polymerisation.
  • Basic types of bioorganic substances (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids).
Study literature:
  • Textbook of Chemistry for four-year grammar schools,  I., II. and III. volumes (various editions)
  • Jiří Vacík et al.: Overview of high school chemistry. SPN-pedagogical publishing house a.s., Prague 1996
  • L. Kosina, V. Šrámek. ALBRA 1995.
Recommended reading:
  • J. Blažek: Contemporary chemical names.  SPN Praha, 1982,1985.